web space | free hosting | Business Hosting Services | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

40. Kempen

from A. Heppner and J. Herzberg, Aus Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Juden und
den juedischen Gemeinden in den Posner Landen Koschmin-Bromberg: [privately
published] 1909

The original begins on page 514

translated by E. Irene Newhouse ca. 1992

The Jewish Commnity in Kempen [1]  [Pol. Kepno] first developed from small beginnings after 1660, and consisted, in spite of the privilege[2]  dated 16 May 1674 granted it by the lord, in 1684 of only 10 families, who had to pay the provost an annual fee of 30 Polish gulden.  Only after 1689, in which year the Prince Bishop [Fuerstbischof] Franz Ludwig of Breslau guaranteed the Jews the undisturbed practice of their religion in writing[3] , does a greater number of the same seem to have settled here.  Thereupon, a Synagogue[4]  was built in the same year, a cemetery plot obtained and a few years later [1690] the Society for Care of the Sick and Burials, which is still active today, founded.--   In the Kempner Church Books, a Jewish watchman is already mentioned in 1712.  - On 15 March 1776, about midnight, an evil man, bearing a Jew a grudge because he refused to sell him brandy on credit, set fire to the first of 32 sheds, and all 32 burnt to the ground. --  The privileges granted the Jews were repeatedly renewed in the course of time, and an older document of the Kahal lists the years 1692, 1717, 1744, 1752, 1780[5] . --  The last, granted in 1792  and signed by Stanislaus August, is a safe conduct, in which the citizens who are in
litigation with the lord of Kempen are permitted to leave their home town in order to pursue their claims in a higher venue[6] .  --  The Kammer-Kalkulator [a financial official] Zimmermann reports of Kempen in the year 1793:

"The jurisdiction have the elders and the Rabbi, according to the Privilege of 16 May 1674, so constituted that cases of Jews vs. Jews and Christians vs. Jews are pled before the elders.  Jews vs. Christians, however, must seek redress at the castle and have nothing to do with the magistrate, but everything is decided by the Jewish judges; inheritance cases proceed according to Mosaic law, and not according to Polish law.  Matters of licensing are [in the hands] of the Dominum [the feudal lord], but the elders are consulted by him.  There are the following craftsmen:  15 tailors[7] , 18 furriers, 10 lace makers, 3 goldsmiths,  soapmaker, 6 bakders, 11 butchers, 1 glazier, 1 engraver, 2 barbers, 1 doctor, 5 scholars, 10 school masters, who were free of taxes, taught the youth well, and created a guild for themselves, and there's one senior  Guild Assessor.  They trade in all
wares that are measures by ells and weight, they offer salt and fish at the market as well as in other locations.  Their wares they obtain in Breslau and Goldberg, and in part they transport them all the way to Warsaw and Lendzitz.  They are permitted to marry without restriction.  They can also move away as they please, but the move must be registered with the Community, the majority of which must be in agreement [with the plan].  The Jews are, in regard to owning houses, restricted to a certain area, but a few have obtained rights to buy into [lots] at the market or elsewhere;  these owners are in part under the city government, partly under the Dominio [feudal lord] [tr. note: I think this refers to whom they pay property tax]  The Jews have their own pumper, go [to put out fires] at any time; and they also own a Synagogue, a cemetery, a Talmud school, a hospital, welfare [organization], and the majority of the members of the Community are in the Brotherhood [tr. note: I think this refers to the "Gesellschaft der Brueder", a Jewish fraternal organization dedicated to Reform].  An outsider who is buried there has to pay at most 3 ducats.

Royal taxes are 12 silver Groschen per head, but at the moment they enjoy 8 years of freedom [from this tax] on account of a fire.  The levies of the Dominium are 12 Fl. pohl.  for a homeowner and 10 Fl. pohl. for a renter.  Butchering [tax] is 166-2/3 taler.  They are not permitted to contribute to the Cammerey. [Tr note: a gov't. department I'm ignorant of].

The Community retains its own night watchman, and during quartering [of troops?]
the Jews pay half the cost, or take on quartering half [the force].

The Jewish Community consists of 270 families, comprising something like 1200 souls, and is about equal to the number of Christians.

The community has 7500 Fl. passive debt, of which 2000 talers still have an interest of 10%.

The Community has various complaints against the feudal lord, but they don't belong here at all"[8] .

In August of the year 1797, the President of the "Koenigl. deutsch. Gesellschaft zu Koenigsberg i Pr.", Konsistorialrat Hennig, came to Kempen and visited there the Synagogue on a Friday evening.  He reported the following about it:

"It was an effort for me to suppress my laughter.  The temporary Cantor was the problem.  He was itinerant, and if he wanted to appear to his public in full glory as a virtuoso, so he could not disguise his additional goal of outdoing the former Cantor, who had just been let go.  I was already in Kempen, as the entire Jewish Community had split on account of this former cantor.  One part was for him, the other against.  The main charge levied by the latter was that he participated in various dealings that were improper for an orthodox Jew, that is, on the Sabbath, and that he had actually, in the company of Christians, smoked tobacco, played cards, etc.  The former, as the more enlightened and thoughtful party, overlooked these flaws in their cleric, because one had to admit his skillful instruction and his conscientious performance of his religious duties.  The controversy between the parties was eventually so fierce that one could fear a schism in the Community.  The Commiss. loci Kriegs-und-
Steuer-Rath B. [Local War & Tax Commissioner] therefore did everything possible to mollify both parties and he finally succeeded in getting an agreement that the Cantor should be fired, and that he would, until a replacement was hired, be
paid 10 taler monthly from the Community treasury.  To observe personally the present feelings between the parties, I went to Synagogue with a friend.  We were honored with a seat from which we had the traveling virtuoso directly before us.   On the ending of a general prayer, Herr Cantor began a Prelude at the top of his lungs.  Pressing his right index finger to his throat, closing his eyes very tightly, swaying his head back and forth, forcing his lips into very possible fold, he pressed out of his shrilling throat Anglaises, quadrilles and slurs two octaves.  A small boy whimpered shily a sort of second to this, and a third aged Hebrew warbled with philosophic ease his wheezing bass.  But our hero didn't just want to give a vocal concert, but also an instrumental one.  Therefore he alternately contorted his throat into a flute-oboe-violin tone or a horn-tone, and, when the passages got too high for him, the piccolo offered its assistance.  Of such Preludes, of which each lasted a quarter hour, we heard three. Finally, on the fourth, the thermometer of our equanimity rose to the highest point.  Heavenly Pierinnen!  [Tr note: not in my dictionary] You who currently listen to Mozart's harmonies, too lovely for this earth, in a cheerful circle, o!  if your spoiled ear had only not sunk to the sphere of your Jewish sham scholar, who screeched out the master aria, "Bei Maennern, welche Liebe fuehlen" first simply, then with improvisiation and with steady imitation of the above instruments.  - The end of this aria determined our exit from the Synagogue, like the exit of a singer being laughed at, who in his enthusiasm had taken so much out of him that he was near fainting."[9]

Toward end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century, the Jewish Community had to pay the Catholich Church 56 Polish gulden at Easter, and to deliver at Easter as well as at Corpus Christi 4 pounds of [gun]powder[10] . - A handwritten Siddur
in possession of the Community was completed 20 Adar 1759, on commission by the Committee for the Poor at the time, Salomo b. Aharon, Wolf b. Chaim, Wolf b. Juda, and Schimschon b. David[11] .

Of Rabbis who lived and served in Kempen, can be named:  Mosche Darshan,  a son of the Vilna Rabbi Hillel, author of the bet-you-tav he-lamed-lamed.  He was a scholar of the "Magen Abraham", edited his father's work, later became
Rabinnatspraeses in Vilna, and died there 13 Iyar 5486 [1726] .[12]  - Mosche Mannes, a friend of Meir Posner, the editor of the bet-yud-tav mem-alef-yud-resh[13]  -- Meshullam Salom. Kohn -[b. ca. 1739][14]  - Israel Jona b. Josef halevi
Landau, author of the mem-ayin-vav-nun he-bet-resh-kaf-vav-tav, Dyrenf. 5575/6 and other writings.  His wife was called Guetel b. Samuel, his sons Arjeh Leib and Josef Samuel, and his daughters: Feige [married Abraham Arjeh], Elke [married Yizchak Nathan] and Channe [married Mordechai Seeb]. - At the end of his work, 2 printers from Rawitsch are named:  Abrah. David b. Jehuda Leib and Abrah. b.Nissen Litauer. - Rabbi Israel Jona Landau died on 18 Shevat 5584 [1824][15] .  He was followed on 9 Iyar of the same year by his son Josef Samuel, author of kaf-vav-resh he-bet-heth-yud-nun-he[16]  5597 (Mem-sin-kaf-nun shin-yud-lamed-he).  His wife, Dina Elke, was the daughter of his mother's brother. - Jos. Sam. Landau died aged about 37, on 13 Kislev 5597 [1836][17] .

Meir Loebusch ben Jechiel Michel [Malbim] b. 1809, was 7 years Rabbi in Wreschen[18] , and went from there in 1840[19]  to Kempen where he served 15 years. - M., the author of an examplary commentary to the Bible and other writings also graced the Rabbinates of Bucharest, Lenczyce, Mohilev and Koenigsberg i. Pr. and died 1 Tishri 1879 in Kiev. - Various works contain his approbation. - Malbim was a son-in-law of the Lenczycer Rabbi Chajim Auerbach from Lissa[20].

Rabbinats-verweser Jacob Simcha Rehfisch, b. in Rawitsch, prominent Talmudist and author of the halachic shin-ayin-resh sin-mem-heth-he, the dalet-resh-vav-sin and the unedited mem-sind-kaf-nun he-ayin - dalet-vav-tav[21] . - He also graced
various works, e. eg .Klausner's [Hebrew title] and Schlesinger's [Hebrew title] with his approbations. - Of his students are particularly to be mentioned:  B. Zomber, Beth ha-Midrash Rabbi in Berlin, author of various works[22] , Dr. David
Rosin, Docent at the Breslau Rabbinical Seminary[23] , and Pick, Rabbi in Kreuzberg, Crone a. Br., Bojanowo and Obornik[24] . - In July 1874 the Kempner Rabbinate, which had been unoccupied for 15 years, was occupied by Dr. Vict.Meyer Rawicz[25] .  He only stayed here a year, and was followed by Dr. Lazar Muenz [26] from 1877-1905 and he by Dr. Louis Lewin[27].

Kempeners included:   the Hebrew poet David b. Josef Samosz [28], who wrote a Biblical drama "Pilegesch be-Gibah" (1818), poems "Rsisse ha-Melizah" (1820 ) & others[29], and translated various youthful works of Campe (for example [Hebrew title], Sittenbuechlein fuer Kinder, Bresl. 1846 [Little Book of Behavior for Children]). -- The preacher Dr. Samuel Holdheim, who was already an experienced Talmudist as a young man, first learned German as an adult, and studied
philosophy at the university in Prague.  [It is now felt that SH was NOT born in Kempen].  In 1836 he became Rabbi in Frankfurt/O & 4 years later Landrabbiner in Mecklenburg-Schwerin.  "As he gradually developed from an Orthodox Rabbi to one of the cofounders of the most extreme Reform in Judaism, so that he was called to be the first preacher of the Reform Congregation in Berlin, so was also his intellectual development.  His sermons, which are distinguished by deep, shrewd
conception, logical disposition and richness of ideas, and appeal more to the intellect than to the emotions, teach more than uplift, rest, as do all his literary works, mostly on the foundation of his radical reform"[30]  -- Dr. Wilhelm Freund, classical philologist, the "good friend" of the Gynasium student [tr note: his Latin-German dictionary is a classic.  Many Latin-English dictionaries are apparently based on it.  If one gets into, say, the combined catalog of the U. of California system & queries WF as author, dozens of editions of Latin dictionaries spew out], b. 27 Jan 1806 in K, studied in Berlin & Breslau, opened a Jewish religious school there in 1828, which, however, soon closed, was for a time teacher at the Elisabethanum in Breslau, and was Provisional Director of the Gymnasium in Hirschberg from 1848-51.  In 1851 he made an extended trip to England, 1853 to Graubuenden & Tyrol, to learn Romansch there; from 1855-70 he was Director of the Jewish High School in Gleiwitz & from that time until his death 4 Jun. 1894 he lived in literary activity in Breslau[31] . -- He was also eagerly active in the battle for Jewish civil rights & edited from July 1843 the monthly "Zur Judenfrage in Deutschland"[32] .

R. Arie Loebusch b. David Henschel[33] , famous Talmudic scholar, b 1806[34]  in Kempen & died 22 Shevat 5597 (1837) in Breslau.  He lived & taught several years in Kobylin, was supposed to become Dayyan in Breslau, & died there.  In the introduction of [Hebrew title], by his student & relative Salomon Goldschmidt  (Berlin 5648), he is referred to as [Hebrew name]. [tr. note: Notice how Orthodox Jews get their dates listed according to the Jewish calendar?]

Samson Arenstein, Rabbi in Orszkow & Kalisch, a prominent Talmudist.  He was born 1821 in Kempen, married [a woman] from Blaschke (Poland) & died Dec. 1903 in Kalisch.

Dr. David Honigmann, lawyer & author, Dayyan of the Breslau Jewish Community, author of the stories "Das Grab in Sabionetta" (1872), Berel Grenadier (1876) & other works.  He was born 15 August 1821 in Kempen & died in Breslau 22 July 1885[35] . [Grandfather of the translator's maternal grandmother].

Dr. Bernhard Friedmann, Rabbi in Nakel& Mannheim, died 23 April 1896 in Strassbourg[36] .

Isaac Goldbaum, clever Hebraicisit, author of 2 manuscript volumes of Hebrew poems[37]  [Heb. title] & [Heb. title], d. in Koschmin 24 Tishri 1882.

Dr. Aaron Isaac Goldenblum, founder, publisher & editor of the first Hebrew newspaper in Russia, (Ha-Melitz) in partnership with A. Zederbaum, as well as "Kol M'wasser" (Yiddish) the the "Vyestnik Russkikh Evreev" (Russian).  Dr. G.
also managed to get the Ministerium to agree to the hiring of Jewish religious teachers at Gymnasia & founded the first Sabbath school for Jewish craft and trade apprentices in Russia. -- For his salutary and manifold activity G.received from the Tsar a Medal with the Stanislas ribbon & Russian citizenship[38] .

Wilhelm Goldbaum, author, b. 6 Jan 1843, studied at the Gymnasium in Breslau, & began to study philosophy there.  After he'd had a post in Posen as a private tutor for a year, he continued his studies in Berlin, spent some time in Leipzig & entered the editorial staff of the "Posener Zeitung" in 1869.  October 1872 he went to Vienna, where he has since then been on the editorial staff of the "Neuen Freien Presse".  His most well-known works are "Entlegene Kulturen", 1877, & "Literarische Physiognomien", 1884[39] .

Dr. Gustav Born, b. Kempen 1851, outstanding anatomist & professor at the university in Breslau, died there 6 July 1900[40] .  [Tr. note: Now better known as the father of the Nobel Prize winning physicist Dr. Max Born].

Dr. Salom. Kusznitzki[41], since 1880 Rabbi in Bayreuth.

Dr. Jakob Batzfreund[42], since 1890 Chief Rabbi in Trier.

Geheimer Archivrat [Tr. note: an Archivist who's been promoted to an administrative position] Dr. Ad. Warschauer in Posen, b. Kempen 13 Oct 1856, one of the most informed people on the history of the province of Posen[43] .

Dr. Simon Friedmann[44], Rabbi in Lublinitz.

Dr. Victor Grabowski[45], since 1899 Rabbi in Barmen.

Julius Ehrlich[46], the co-founder of the Thorn "Gewerbeschule fuer Maedchen"
[Girls' Vocational School].

The sibling authors David[47]  and Friederike[48]  Kempner were born near Kempen  (Opatow).

In 1821 Kempen was the fourth largest Jewish Community in Prussia; of 4192 inhabitants, 3556 were Jews[50] .  By 1840[51]  the Jewish population had increased another 21 souls, 1855[52]  there were only (even with the inclusion of Baranow & 32 villages) 3282 Jews, 1871: 2449, 1895: 1237, 1905: 1059[53] , & 1907[54] : 804. -- On 15 July 1854 the city was devastated by a major fire, resulting in 89 homeless Jewish families.  In order to reduce their suffering, the leaders of the Jewish Community sent out a "call for help to the brothers of Israel".

Among the Jewish associations, in addition to the one mentioned on p 514 [the Chevra Kaddish], there are:  The Jewish Orphans' Association[55]  (pres:  Raphael Freund), the Dowry Association (pres: Moritz Fischer), Association for Jewish
History & Literature  (pres: Dr. Lewin), Charitable Association (pres: Stadtrat [alderman] Isaac Bloch), Ladies' Association, (pres:  Charlotte Zadik[56] ).

Jews took and still take an active part in city government.  The recently deceased merchant Hermann Bloch [57] was many years president of the city council, and today Isaac Bloch [58] and R-A [Rabbinats-Assessor = assistant religious judge] Schacher are members of the city government [i. e. executive branch], while various other Jewish men belong to the city council. - Among the 264 petitions, against the "Wagener Proposal" which were submitted to the Legislature, there was also one from Kempen[59] .

To be mentioned is still the well-known verse, mentioned by Wilh. Goldbaum in his "Briefe an eine Freundin"[60] , which comes from a wedding poem:  "Kommt einer aus Kempen - seh' her, sie nemt en" [If he comes from Kempen - look out, she'll
take him] & the anecdotes, that once a rich Community member gave as much gold as his first born son, plus the cradle, weighed, for building the Synagogue, and someone had once had to seek a Rabbinical letter of exemption, because the
Community president-elect was named "Reb. Moshe Christ".

Back

Footnotes:
  [1]After Paul Pietsch:  Beitraege zur Gesch. d. Stadt Kempen I. S. 23 ff & Kempen in Wort und Bild, Pos.
Familienblaetter 1896 No. 39
 [2] According to the same, their own street was given the Jews, and they were permitted to build there a Synagogue, as
well as the needed buildings for the Rabbi and Cantor, which would be free of taxes.  They are permitted a Mikveh and
a cemetery, to deal in all kinds of wares in any part of the city, and to practice any desired skilled trade.  The Jews were
freed of  feudal labor tax either at court or in town during the harvest time.  They were not permitted, under pain of
punishment, to purchase any Christian religious items or textiles flecked in blood.  Litigation between Jews &
Christians were to be judged by the lord owning the land.    Jews were to swear, in petty cases, with a hand laid on the
presentation iron [bar] from the Synagogue, and in criminal cases "on the Ten Commandments".  [tr. note:  Christians
swore on the Bible, and the wording of the oath included the name of Jesus.  This was, of course, contrary to Jewish
religion, and Christians who realized this felt that perhaps Jews might not consider such an oath binding.  Therefore,
how Jews were to swear to tell the truth in court was a hot item long ago].  If a Jew were assaulted by a Christian, so
his neighbors are legally obligated, under pain of prosecution. to go to his aid, murder of a Jew by a Christian waw to
be punishable under the Royal Statute. [tr. note:  the earlier, more general section of this book makes it clear that Polish
kings generally took Jewish rights seriously.  Therefore, turning such a case over to royal judgment generally assured
that the murderer would be severely punished].  Curfew was to apply to the Jewish street the same as to Christian
streets, and the Jewish street was, just as Christian streets, to be overseen by a night watchman.  Lumber to build the
Synagogue was to be logged at no charge by the Jews themselves from the lord's forests.  Further, they were to be
permitted to distil brandy, and to sell mead, bread, and flour. - Every Jew settling in Kempen was to be freed of all tax
obligations for the period of a year.
[3]  For the document verbatim, see Pietsch, op cit p 25
[4] The present Synagogue, whose interior contains masterful carvings at the Almemor and on the Holy Ark, was built in
1815
 [5] In this confirmatory document issued 15 May, it is determined that in order to prevent conflicts between Jewish
merchants and Christian clothmakers,  "if they have concluded a contract for the purchase of wool, a higher bid from
the other party is not permitted, and vice versa".
 [6] Pietsch, op cit. p 26
[7]  Wuttke reports:  Toward the end of the 18th century, there were in Kempen among 2655 inhabitants, 1308 Jews.  Of
these were:  27 tailors, 28 furriers, 9 lace makers 2 goldsmiths, 1 book binder, 6 musicians, 1 physician
[8]  Pruemers, Das Jahr 1793, Pos. 1895, p 614 and 165
[9]  Histor. Monatsblaetter, f. d. Pr. Posen I 8 u 9 p 120, 121
 [10] Pietsch, op cit p 22, footnote
[11]  communication of Dr. Lewin, Kempen
 [12] Asulai, Schem Hagedol. Warschau p 99 No. 144 & Lewinstein [Hebrew title] Warsaw 1899, p 193 No. 541
 [13] Asulai, op cit 102 No. 180
[14] 1 Jahrb. d. jued. litt. Gesellsch. 1906, p 313
[15]  [Hebrew title] No. 18
[16]  Approb. of Rabbis Salom. Tiktin, Breslau, Moses Sofer, Pressburg & Akiba Eger, Posen
 [17] [Hebrew title], introduction, in which his last will is also preprinted.  At the end of the introduction, L mentions
laudatorily his student Jechiel Dov b. Simcha Elieser Friedmann and in his testament his son-in-law [Chajim hakohen].
[18]  Here he was naturalized a Prussian citizen [Communication of Dr. Lewin, Kempen]
[19]  Introduction to [Hebrew title] by R. Samuel Dajan, Krotoschin
[20]  Lewin,Gesch. d. Jud. in Lisa, p 235
[21]  Jahrbuch der jued. liter. Gesellschaft 1905, p 28, footnote
[22]  see Lippe, Bibliogr. Lexikon, Wien 1881 p 551
[23]  Gesch. des jued. theolog. Seminars, p 98
[24]  Heppner-Herzberrg, p 311
[25]  b, 26 Ab 1846 in Breslau, he attended there the Rabb-Seminar & has been since 1876 District Rabbi in Offenburg
[Baden].  About his publications see Gesch. d. jued. theolog. Sem. p 191
[26]  b. 1837 in Tarnow, at the Breslau Rabb. Seminar 1860-1, now lives with his children - for his publications see Lippe,
op cit & Gesch. d. Bresl. Seminars p 183
[27]  b. in Znin, attended the Berlin Rabb-Seminar, was then teacher in Frankfurt/Main, thereupon Foundation Rabbi in Hohensalza and Rabbi in Pinne.  He has written:  Rabbi Simon b. Jochai, Frankfurt/M 1903, Gesch. d. Jud. in
Inowrazlaw [Zeitsch. Zeitschr. d. hist. Gesellsch. fuer Prov. Pos. XV); Die Judenverfolgungen im 2. schwed.-poln. Kriege, Posen 1901; Aus Vergangenheit der jued. Gemeinde Pinne, 1903; Geschichte der Jud. in Lissa, 1904; & various articles in yearbooks 7 periodicals.
[28]  S. was b. 2 Tebet 1789 in K. & d. 29 apr 1864 in Breslau. (Zunz, Monatstage, Berlin 1872).  His mother d. 6 Kislev 5588 (1827), see his [Hebrew title], Bresl. 1834, Part III, p 27.   The city mentioned in this book, Part I, p 81, is said to be Kroeben.
[29]  In his book [Hebrew title], Breslau 1837, note on p 6, one finds a poem on the death of the Kempen Rabbi Jos. Sam. Landau.
[30]  Kayserling, die jued. Lit. Trier, 1896, p. 82. -- H. was b. 1806 in K. [Tr. note: probably not!] & d. in Berlin 22 Aug 1860.  He was a student & son-in-law of the famous Hohensalza Rabbi Joske Spiro. (Heppner-Herzberg p 476.)
[31]  Meyers Konvers.-Lexikon.
[32]  Kayserling, die jued. Lit. p 145.
[33]  Son of R. Anschel H., d. in Kempen 20 Shevat 5592 (1832).
[34]  According to his passport;  in the possession of Rabbi Dr. Heppner, Koschmin.
[35]  Kayserling, op. cit. p 170 & Jahrb. fuer jued. Gesch. u. Lit. 1904, p 133 ff.
[36]  Jahrbuch f. jued. Gesch. u. Lit. p 149 & 150.
[37]  In possession of Rabbi Dr. Heppner in Koschmin.
[38]  Personal communication of Dr. Goldenblum in Petersburg.  He was born 19 Shevat (4 Feb) 1828 in Kempen.
[39]  Bruemmer, Lexikon der deutsche Dichter u. Prosaisten, Leipzig.
[40]  Brandeis, illustr. jued. Volkskalender 1901. p 86.
[41]  B. 1846 in K., from 1864-74 at the Bresl. Rabb. Seminary & from 1874-80 relgious teacher in Braunschweig. -- For his publications see:  Gesch. des jued. theol. Seminars, p 177.
[42]  B. 1850, at Bresl. Seminar from 1867-77, Stiftsrab. in Hannover, 1880 Director of the Religious Education institute there, & 1882 Rabbi in Tarnowitz. -- For his publications see Gesch. d. Bresl. Sem. p 144.
[43]  For his works see:  Kuerschner, Deustch. Literatur-Kalender.
[44]  B 1849, a grandson of the (p 393) already mentioned Fordon Rabbi Simon Lewy & greatnephew of the famous
Posener Rabbi Akiva Eger, baccalaureat 1870, doctorate 1874 in Berlin, where he also completed his religious studies.
Since 1878, he's Rabbi in Lublinitz.-- Besides his thesis, he's published several sermons, a German Pesach Maggadch,
the Haftaroth (in German) & several articles in periodicals.
[45]  B. 1863, studied in Berlin & was from 1889-99 Rabbi in Konitz. -- In addition to his dissertation, smaller articles have appeared in periodicals
[46]  B. 1834, living since 1865 in Thorn & cofounded in 1886 the school with the Christian teacher Marks, at which he
taught until his death in 1896.-- E. was a brother-in-law of the famous Erlangen physiologist Prof. J. Rosenthal.
[47]  B. 29 Dec 1829.  Of his works:  Alexander Willingen (novel) -- historical short stories of the most recent era
(Melanie-Politik und Liebe), 1868 -- Ems und Paris (hist. novel), 1892 -- K. was agriculturalist & owner of the estate
Dorschkau.  Later he moved to Breslau, where he turned his muse to writing & city interest-- as city council member.
He died there 4 Mar 1895.  (Bruemmer, Lexikon deutsch. Dichter und Prosaisten, p. 274).
[48]  Fr. b. 25 June 1836 at Opatow, became aware of the danger of being buried alive at an early age due to her frequent
nursing of sick villagers & therefore became active in the building of morgues.  Her article on this cause met with the
approval of many leading nobles & educated men in Europe.  She also wrote an  expose against solitary confinement,
which enjoyed the success that lifetime solitary confinement was abolished.  For her writings, compare Bruemmer, op.
cit., & Kuerschener deutsch. Lit. -Kalender.  FK d. March 1904 on her estate Friederkenhof b. Reichthal (Silesia).
[49]  The Breslauer philosopher, Prof. Julius Braniss, who converted to Christianity, was also a Kempener.  He died 1873.
[50]  Jahrb. fuer jued. Gesch. u. Lit. 1904, p 133
[51]  See part I, p 279.
[52]  Wertheim, Kalender u. Jahrb. 5618 V. p. 52.
[53]  Stat. Jahrb. deutsch. Jud. 1905. p 25. -- In this year the Jewish religious school in K. had 67 boys and 25 girls, there
were 281 tax payers, who paid 50% of the city tax, amounting to 5617 Marks.  The "Gemeindeetat" [Tr. note: gross
amount on the annual books] amounted to 22905 M.
[54]  Stat. Jahrb. 1907, p 32. -- In this year 60% of the tax was collected.  [Tr. note: I think this means that these few Jews
supplied this disporportionate amount of the total tax collected; probably yet another reason for the steadily decreasing
Jewish population in K.! OR it could mean that 60% of the assessed or estimated tax was collected]
[55]  In the forward to its constitution, written in 1897, it says that:  when there was a cholera epidemic in Kempen in
1848, and many poor of the area had succumbed to it, many very young children were orphaned, and therefore
charitable people (Isaac Henschel, Mos. Arnstein, Hirsch Spitz, Dr. J. Jacobson, & Isaac Sam. Landau) founded an
organization for the protection, shelter, nourishment, and education of these unfortunate orphans.  The association
owned a lot worth 15,000M. outright, and had assets of 30,000M., through the will of Henry Schaps, from Kempen,
who died in Breslau 2 April 1893.
[56]  In 1864 there was still a Chevra of Jewish Musicians with 20-some members.
[57]  Was also 40 years representative of the Jewish Community & president of the
representatives.
[58]  Chief elder & president of the Jewish Community.
[59]  It reads: "The words, which it is hereby proposed to strike, guarantee Jewish Prussians rights they have legally and from God, which are granted and guaranteed them by Royal Word. Withdrawal or limitation of these rights would thus be the deepest & most painful injury of the sense of honor and justice of all the Jewish Prussians in itself, which a Legislature in its wisdom & fairness certainly cannot intend.  We do not wish to go into all the familiar judicial and traditional points here, and, to motivate our most obedient proposal only add a notarized copy of the Circular Declaration of the Royal First Presidents of 18 November 1848, in which the fear of "crippling" the civil citizenship rights enjoyed and practiced by Jews through the recent law making their status equal that of Christians is designated "unfounded", and we are enjoined to work toward having "a thorough confidence in the rule of His Majesty & not believing in those, who for partisan reasons, sow the seeds of mistrust through empty concerns".  (Philippson, der Kampf der preuss. Juden. fuer die Sache der Gewsissensfreiheit, p 33 ff.  The cited
"Circular Declaration" is also reprinted here, as well as a letter of the Attorney to the Representatives Herzberg & their
reply).
[60]  Allgem. Zeitung d. Judent. 1904, # 44, pp 525 & 526.



copyright 2002, E. Irene Newhouse                 Back